Hepatic Detoxification of Bisphenol A is Retinoid-Dependent

Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is a widely used industrial chemical. The extensive distribution of BPA in the environment poses risks to humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA toxicity as well as its effective detoxification and elimination are not well understood. We have investigated specifically for BPA the notion raised in the literature that the optimal sensing, detoxification, and elimination of xenobiotics requires retinoid (natural derivatives and synthetic analogs of vitamin A) actions. The objective of the study was to explore how retinoids, both those stored in the liver and those originating from recent oral intake, help maintain an optimal xenobiotic detoxification response, affecting mRNA expression and activities of elements of xenobiotic detoxification system upon BPA administration to mice. Wild-type and mice lacking hepatic retinoid stores (Lrat−/−) were acutely treated with BPA (50 mg/kg body weight), with or without oral supplementation with retinyl acetate. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding nuclear receptors and their downstream targets involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, phase I and phase II enzyme activities, and levels of oxidative damage to cellular proteins and lipids in hepatic microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol, were assessed. BPA treatment induced hepatic activities needed for its detoxification and elimination in wild-type mice. However, BPA failed to induce these activities in the livers of Lrat−/− mice. Oral supplementation with retinyl acetate restored phase I and phase II enzyme activities, but accelerated BPA-induced oxidative damage through enhancement of non-mitochondrial ROS production. Thus, the activities of the enzymes involved in the hepatic elimination of BPA require hepatic retinoid stores. The extent of hepatic damage that arises from acute BPA intoxication is directly affected by retinoid administration during the period of BPA exposure and hepatic retinoid stores that have accumulated over the lifetime of the organism.

Source: https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article/2953397/Hepatic-Detoxification-of-Bisphenol-A-is-Retinoid?searchresult=1